There are multiple types of construction in the world, among an infinity of houses and buildings in general, and they are classified according to their structure and construction material.
However, it is understood that there are five general types of constructions:
- Residential Construction
- Commercial Construction
- Industrial Construction
- Public Works Construction
- Institutional Construction
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Main types of construction
More and more people build their homes with sustainable materials that allow them to realise high energy savings and have better comfort in the home without the need for electricity consumption appliances.
The residential structures are exclusive for the housing of people and to help in the daily activities. The best-known residential structure is the house, however there are more scales of residential structures; for example, the things that only separates the wall, that is to say, are found together; the condos and the departments. They are considered as medium-scale residential buildings where several families are established. In addition, skyscrapers are large-scale where multiple family-type residential structures are installed.
Types of commercial construction
The types of commercial constructions are made up of shops, restaurants and offices. Stores can be independent or associated with others to establish shopping centers and thus not only a simple building, but a large building. Similarly, restaurants can be autonomous or be part of a restaurant chain, and be established in a tower or in a shopping centre. Offices can also be independent, but they are usually part of a larger-scale structure, they can be found in a skyscraper.
Industrial types are used to manufacture, process or develop products and materials for communities. For safety, most of these types of buildings are separated from the others, since they are usually a source of pollution. Industrial structures can be of any scale, from a space the size of a room to an entire warehouse or a block of warehouses.
The types of institutional constructions support all other types in a community, since they include hospitals, fire stations, police station, courts, departments of the executive and legislative branches, stadiums, parks and infrastructure. Institutional constructions
Construction of public works
All construction work, whether infrastructure or building, promoted by a public administration (as opposed to private work) is called public work, with the objective of benefiting the community.
There are two types of contracting for public works: Direct Contracting or Public Bidding (price competition).
Among the main public works are:
- Transport infrastructure, which includes road transport (highways, highways, roads, roads …), sea or river (ports, canals, …), air transport (airports), rail and duct transport (for example , pipelines).
- Hydraulic infrastructures (dams, distribution networks, treatment plants …).
- Urban infrastructure, including streets, parks, street lighting, etc.
- Public buildings whether educational, sanitary, offices or for other purposes.
- Construction of public works
Types of construction according to the type of material
Green construction systems
It is a new construction system using supporting partitions, without beams or columns, which describes solid and resistant works, minimizing construction time and saving on materials.
The panels have two steel wire meshes that trap high density expanded polystyrene plates with excellent thermal, acoustic and steam insulation. It adapts to high-rise buildings without difficulties, and is one of the construction systems of environmental trends chosen today.
Construction by tiles and panels
They are two techniques very adopted in recent times: wool frame and steel frame. They are also lightweight construction systems that have excellent weight distribution over the entire structure, without requiring bearing walls.
Mesh and panel construction
The steel frame system uses steel frames or profiles that support drywall, wood or stone inside the work, layers of insulation, and then rigid panels to the outside. For the plaster, cement with cementitious splashes, wood (sidding) or exposed brick is usually used, in whole or sectioned blocks. They are fast, more economical and versatile constructions, although less durable in the face of the demanding climatic aggressions.
For its part, the wool frame system is similar to the previous one, except that it incorporates the use of timber-framed profiles. It is a lighter and faster construction, but also of shorter duration in extreme situations.
Types of construction: rationalised
The traditional rationalised is a variation of the traditional construction system, which uses rationalised procedures and elements, such as light panels, light and alternative masonry and installations.
There are more rationalized systems, which seek to build lighter works in less execution time, intermingling wet and dry construction systems, as well as incorporating industrialised techniques and elements (pre-moulded blocks and others).
Types of construction: traditional
It is the most used and known construction system, and it is also one of the oldest. The works obtained through this system are solid, resistant, with high durability and practicality.
It is based on the construction of bearing walls made of various materials, including bricks, blocks, stones and reinforced concrete. In addition to the bearing walls, those of masonry are elevated, that is, divisions of the work that do not support the weight of the structure; These can also be made in various construction materials, including those mentioned and also bearing bricks, although they are not usually made of reinforced concrete, due to their weight.
This technique is of the wet construction type, with waiting time for the settlement and setting of the materials, high cost and long waiting time.
On these structures perch, distributing their weight on the bearing walls, the beams that give support to the roof structure. Then, the entire structure has a thick and thin plaster coating, which provides insulation and adaptation to modern life, hiding or supporting the pipe, plaster, tiles and others on the outside.
Types of construction according to regulatory rules
- Class A: The constructions of this type of class have a supporting structure of steel, mezzanine steel profiles or reinforced concrete slabs.
- Class B: These are those buildings with reinforced concrete supporting structure or mixed steel structure with reinforced concrete.
- Class C: Construction with supporting brick masonry walls, confined between pillars and concrete chains. Mezzanines of reinforced concrete slabs or wooden frames.
- Class D: It is a construction with supporting walls of block or stone masonry, confined between pillars and reinforced concrete chains. Mezzanines of reinforced concrete slabs or wooden frames.
Construction is being reinvented and updated every day, so it is not surprising that from now on, at some point, new forms of buildings can be developed, which should be added to this list. At the moment, these are only half of the existing classifications.
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